Covid/immunity

 

DRAFT ONLY - Ongoing updates

This is my personal opinion only. For educational purposes only.

I am going to build up a case for the urgent need to supplement to reduce the chances of being affected by Covid-19 and to possibly manage the potential very small risk of type 1 interferon reactions (side-effects) of the mRNA vaccine. Remember - we must respect vitamins and minerals as pharmaceuticals, and they too can have side-effects, so we must dose responsibly. 

That being said - you'll be surprised how high some doses actually need to be! 

I shall build up links to other people's works and research papers for those interested in the data. 

Then I'll attempt to summarise that with protocols. If you have underlying health condition and medications, these need to be taken into account, or you could trigger other problems. Children, elderly and pregnancy are special populations - and need their own separate protocols too. 

If you are seeking meta-analysis studies consisting of randomised controlled trials with placebo controlled homogenised groups, and this being given as approved guidelines by authoritative organisations such as NICE, then this rarely exists for anything! Under those strict criteria - no medications, operations or nutrients can really be recommended.

We have made great strides in research, promulgation of knowledge and critiquing. And as the years go by - we are improving. 

We can only do what we think is right at this moment in time, and this will naturally evolve with the more we learn. 

The general premises

Phase 1: Intact innate immune barriers

Phase 2: Strong innate and adaptive immune response, a positive cascade 

Phase 3: Speedy switching-off of phase 2

Phase 4: Repair of structural damage

 

Principles

1) Accepting that we all have single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) and oxidant damage as we age, therefore we'll be affected by something. The idea is to live as long a natural life as we're programmed to, with the later years being in the best of health as can be, and the later years to have as short a time in ill-health as can reasonably be. If a baby is born and 1 day passes, the baby ages 1 day, a 90 year old has aged 100 days. 

2) There is a general increase in sub-clinical inflammation amongst the general population 

3) The general population are sub-clinically deficient of a number of vitamins and minerals; and this primes us for poor health, including a decreased ability to respond to COVID. 

4) Recommended supplementation and dosages will be based around your diet. For example, if you eat organic free-range organ meat, then this will be packed with vitamins and minerals in highly absorbable forms. 

1) Inflammation is healthy. It protects us against bacteria, viruses and is the second part of healing (the first being intact physical barriers). At first this can understandably cause confusion. 

2) The immune system needs to be challenged with healthy bacteria and commensal viruses

3) The innate immune system needs to be supported and protected

4) The innate and adaptive immune system are, in this state, more thought of as a 'positive feedback loop' - hyperactive.

The mainstay of analysing diseases of a hyperactive immune system and its subsequent medicines, appears to be one of dampening down various components of the innate and adaptive. Please see point 1, we need a healthy immune system first in order for it to be able to mount an attack, but then we need this cascade to settle quickly. SNP's can weaken the response and or damp the control. 

5) This is why seemingly disparate disease have the same classifications. i.e. type 1 interferon reactions (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, lupus) Type 1 IFN reactions are of particular importance to the possible side-effects of a covid mRNA-1273 vaccine.

6) In functional medicine it is often said "there is no such thing as a disease. Like the type 1 IFN reactions, although different presentations, they share similar pathophysiological pathways. Therefore diseases, before becoming structurally manifest, up to 80% can be prevented by cleaning up the cellular pathways, among one of the key mechanisms. The others being: breathing, sleeping, psychology, reducing environmental toxicity, exercise.

7) Points 1-5 make it clear that although we are dealing specifically with COVID, under this chapter, it will have utility in dealing with an overall healthy body. 

8) In times of acute COVID stress, we must act early and hit the system hard with temporarily high doses.

9) Winter is of particular importance since the Zenith angle of high latitude countries like UK and Scandinavia are such that we need supplements for Vitamin D. 

Pathophysiology

Imperfect storm: is interleukin-33 the Achilles heel of COVID-19?

A good paper discussing Il-33, a subset of Il-1.

Impaired inflammasome activation and bacterial clearance in G6PD deficiency due to defective NOX/p38 MAPK/AP-1 redox signaling

This paper discusses how a G6PD deficiency results in reduced expression of Il-1 and thus reduces an effective innate immune reaction. In the 3rd phase, an overactive Il-1 (Il-33) causes chronic inflammasome, auto-immune diseases.

Haemoglobinopathies, Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Allied Problems in the Indian Subcontinent

This paper acts as an example of deficiencies existing in populations. The G6PD deficiency is likely an evolutionary advantage for such conditions as malaria. I put this paper to highlight that if not a deficiency, if SNP's exist, that the G6PD enzyme will be active, but reduced efficiency. SNPs of G6PD might be one of the reasons behind higher prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the indian population, but this is a personal thought only, to be investigated! 

The possible pathophysiology mechanism of cytokine storm in elderly adults with COVID‑19 infection: the contribution of “infame‑aging”

The older population are usually shown to have a) less caloric intake b) less nutritional intake c) greater states of deficiency d) less efficient enzymatic activity 

Vitamin-C

This is a great website for a summary with a list of reference 

https://www.foundmyfitness.com/topics/vitamin-c

For 'standard vitamin C' There appears to be clear benefit in supplementing from 200mg/day. Ideally above 1000mg (1gram) per day is better.  For common colds, 2000ml (2grams) per day. 

'Liposomal Vitamin C' is more potent - and a reduced intake is needed 

Warning

Vitamin C can give you the shits! Beware of the Pleiotropic effects of long-term high dosing of Vitamin C. It has still been associated with kidney disease (stones and damage). Balanced dose in normal times, and elevated doses in times of distress. And when dosing high on Vit-C, you need to be well hydrated 

Vitamin-D

A Basic Review of the Preliminary Evidence That COVID-19 Risk and Severity Is Increased in Vitamin D Deficiency

Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity Immune Modulatory Effects of Vitamin D on Viral Infections

Immune Modulatory Effects of Vitamin D on Viral Infections

Immunologic Effects of Vitamin D on Human Health and Disease

The potential link between inherited G6PD deficiency, oxidative stress, and vitamin D deficiency and the racial inequities in mortality associated with COVID-19

Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID19 infection progression and severity.pdf

Vitamin D needs to be taken in conjunction with Magnesium. You can achieve sufficient magnesium levels through diet. Please see my videos to 

Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression and severity

Vitamin D needs Magnesium

Vitamin D enhances production of soluble ST2 inhibiting the action of IL33

Vitamin D reduces inflammation (cytokine storm) 

Vitamin D in COVID - 19: Dousing the fire or averting the storm? – A perspective from the Asia-Pacific

No Evidence of Vitamin D 

Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank

The issue with the paper is that they have

1) Not stated how they measured for covid +ve patients

2) No details on numbers hospitalised on oxygen or critical care. So this paper is misleading. Asymptomatic patients can have non-virulent fragments of mRNA virus in the nasopharynx  that show positive on PCR testing. This does not give us any meaningful information other than you have stuff up your nose!  

Zinc

The Potential Impact of Zinc Supplementation on COVID-19 Pathogenesis

Does zinc supplementation enhance the clinical efficacy of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine to win today's battle against COVID-19?

The key role of zinc in elderly immunity: A possible approach in the COVID-19 crisis

Zinc sulfate in combination with a zinc ionophore may improve outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients

Early intervention before hospital admittance is needed in order to dampen the cytokine storm. Late intervention appears to have little to no benefit. 

Curcumin (Turmeric) 

Curcumin an orally bioavailable blocker of TNF and other pro inflammatory biomarkers

Curcumin modulation of IFN and IL 12 signalling and cytokine induction in human T cells

Effects of curcumin in treatment of experimental pulmonary fibrosis A comparison with hydrocortisone

Curcumins-Rich Curry Diet and Pulmonary Function in Asian Older Adults

Interesting highlights into the addition of vitamins A,C,E, Omega-3 and selenium

Can food and food supplements be deployed in the fight against the COVID 19 pandemic?

Curmin and Zinc in Covid-19

General papers

Could Vitamins Help in the Fight Against COVID-19?

Early Nutritional Interventions with Zinc, Selenium and Vitamin D for Raising Anti-Viral Resistance Against Progressive COVID-19

Evidence of sub-clinical deficiencies of vitamins and minerals in the elderly population, it's consequences (hyper-inflammation) and doses to take long-term and when in acute crises. Also thoughts on why experiments on e.g. vitamin D in acute crises have not worked, namely that high doses in late stage have no effect. 

COVID-19: The Inflammation Link and the Role of Nutrition in Potential Mitigation

Strengthening the Immune System and Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress through Diet and Nutrition: Considerations during the COVID-19 Crisis

The importance of the Gut bacteria and general nutrients (fatty acids, Carbohydrates, Minerals, Vitamins) 

Safety profiles of Vitamins and minerals established by governments & other bodies

Safe Upper Levels for Vitamins and Minerals - uk guidelines 

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamins and Minerals - EU guidelines 

The Safety of Vitamins and Minerals in Food Supplements - Ireland guidelines

Vitamin and Mineral Safety - Council for Responsible Nutrition, USA professional body 

Warnings

1) Vitamin C: Still to comment

2) Calcium: unless osteoporotic or osteopaenic - calcium is best derived through green leafy vegetables

3) Vitamin C: No more than 1-2grams/day, long term, due to risk of increased oxalate count and renal stones

4) Vitamin D: Long-term dosing above 4000IU/day, due to risk of hypercalcaemia and renal stone

5) Iron: Unless anaemic or vegan - do not supplement. Iron is better derived through green leafy vegetables and combined with

     Vitamin C (Vitamin C aides non-haem iron absorption) 

6)  Zinc sustained at a high dose (above 150mg/day) will cause/be:

      - Toxic.

      - Reduction in copper, being mutually antagonistic.

      - Zinc and iron compete for absorption. 

      - Decrease magnesium and calcium uptake. High dietary calcium can decrease absorption of zinc.

Emergency, high doses, 10-14 days only

(why: because the body could be starting the process of a positive inflammatory cascade, and you are doing everything you can to reduce this over-reaction)

Vitamin D: 10,000 IU /day max 50,000IU/week

Vitamin C: 5000mg / day

Zinc: 100mg - First consult with medics and pharmacist before commencing doses above 50mg

General thoughts on doses

Vitamin D: No more than 100micrograms/day (4000 IU) for long-term dosing.

Vitamin C: No more than 1-2grams/day

Zinc: 15-45mg/day long term

Selenium: 100-200micrograms/day long-term

Co-enzyme Q10: 

Curcumin: 500-1000mg per day long term.  

Natural diet (a referenced perspective will follow, but will take time to compile) 

A natural organic diet with consumption of organ meats and a reduction of sugar and fried foods should be the natural starting point to protecting our immune system and getting all the nutrients we need for a healthy body and mind. But this ideal diet is no longer attainable in part due to expense and in part due to a lack of nutritional density within our supermarket available foods. In summary; and the "secret truth" is that it's soo complex and individualised to your genetics, epigenetics, SNPs, stress levels, exercise, environmental toxicity, and what you want from your body; that no one expert actually knows definitively! This is why sometimes 3 different leading experts will give you 3 diametric poles of a protocol! 

One of the sticking points appears to be phytates, oxalates, lectins and gluten. For special populations - we need to look at these more carefully. For the majority it appears a balanced diet of the past seems to be the best! i.e. less wholemeal, soaking beans before cooking and nuts before eating.  

More information will be added, as and when I get more time to research and write. The above is subject to change; since my learning, nutritional health and its science is an ongoing process - and this area of science is very complex and ambiguous even amongst the 'experts'.